| Kale & Collards |
| Kale and collards are hardy biennials that will overwinter in milder climates, and improve in flavor with the onset of cold weather. They are in the Brassicaceae family, sharing species name Brassica oleracea with cauliflower, cabbage, broccoli, brussels sprouts, and kohlrabi. |
- Scotch - Deeply curled and wrinkled leaves. Very hardy.
- Siberian or Russian Flat leaves with lobed edges. Most tender.
- Lacinato Dark green savoyed blade shaped leaves.
- Collards More heat tolerant. Giant round leaves.
| Soil and Nutrient Requirements |
| Kale and Collards thrive in well drained fertile soil high in organic matter, with pH 6.0- 7.5. They can tolerate slightly alkaline soil. A general guideline is 2-3 lbs of 8-16-16 fertilizer over 100 sq ft of garden area two weeks before planting. If boron is not present in your soils, consider adding 1 Tbs per 100 sq ft. |
| Position |
| Full sun is best, although light shade can help plants tolerate hot weather. |
| Seeding Depth |
| 1/4-1/2". |
| Plant Spacing |
| Babyleaf- Direct seeding: ~60seeds/ft in 2-4" bands; Full Size- 12-18 |
| Row Spacing |
| 18-30 for full size |
| When to Sow |
| Days to maturity are from direct seeding, subtract 2 weeks if transplanting. Direct sow as soon as soil can be worked or start transplants 4 weeks before planting date. Plant baby leaf every 4-5 weeks for a continual harvest. Sow fall plantings two months before first expected frost for full size and up until frost for baby leaf. |
| Frost Tolerant |
| Yes. Kale is very hardy, withstanding even a hard freeze. Cold weather causes kale to become very sweet. |
| Drought Tolerant |
| Kale can tolerate drought, but the quality and flavor of the leaves will suffer. |
| Heat Tolerant |
| Collards are a better choice than kale for hot weather. |
| Seed Specs |
| 5,625-9,375 seeds/oz (7,500 avg), 90-150M seeds/lb (116M avg). |
| Seeding Rate |
| Babyleaf- 116 M seeds/100 bed (1 lb), 1.6MM seeds/1,000 bed (10 lbs) using ~1,000 seeds/ ft in 16 rows on a 36 bed. Full Size- 68M seeds/acre (12oz) using 3 seeds/10, 30 row spacing. M=1,000, MM=1,000,000 |
| Harvest |
| Harvest full size leaves when desired. Kale flavor sweetens after light frosts. Kale and collards are both very cold hardy, overwintering in most climates to some degree. |
| Storage |
| Cool leaves in cold water at harvest and store in plastic in fridge. In late fall, cut the heart of the plant and store just above freezing in a plastic bag for a few weeks. |
| Pest Info |
| Kale and collards do not usually suffer too much from pest damage, but they are subject to the same insect pests as cabbage, cauliflower, and broccoli. |
- Insect pests, including cabbage looper, imported cabbage worm, and diamondback moth are largely of the Lepidoptera order and can thus be controlled by Bacillus thuringiensis (such as Dipel DF) and/or spinosad, preferentially in rotation with one another to prevent build-up of resistant individuals.
- Flea beetles chew small holes in the leaves and are most detrimental when plants are young; use row cover (make sure edges are sealed) or application of Pyganic, neem or capsaicin products to control populations.
| Disease Info |
| In general, kale and collards do not suffer much from disease. They can be affected by Black Rot, caused by the bacterium Xanthomonas campestris and Club root, caused by the soil borne fungus Plasmodiophora Brassica. Prevention includes resistant varieties, crop rotation, removal or tillage of plant debris, eliminating cruciferous weeds, and handling plants in dry conditions. |
| Seed Saving Instructions |