This guide is designed to help growers determine the appropriate time to sow certain crops based on their region and unique growing climate.

Use the “When to Plant Out” column below as a reference for each crop you want to grow from seed. If the column says “After Last Frost,” use the following formula to determine the sowing date for starting transplants:

Last Frost Date “Start Transplants” Column = Sowing Date

For all other transplants and direct sowings, reference the “Soil Temp” column and your region’s plant hardiness zone to determine sowing dates. (Not sure which zone you’re in? Find your plant hardiness zone here for U.S. states and here for Canada.)

What do you want to plant? Jump to: Artichoke · Beans · Beet · Broccoli · Brussels Sprouts · Cabbage · Carrot · Cauliflower · Celery/Celeriac · Chard · Collards · Corn · Cucumbers · Eggplant · Fennel · Garlic · Greens · Herbs · Kale · Kohlrabi · Leek · Lettuce · Melon · Okra · Onions · Parsnip · Peas · Pepper · Potatoes · Pumpkin · Radish · Rutabaga · Spinach · Summer Squash · Winter Squash · Tomato · Turnip · Watermelon · Zucchini

Click the crop type in the chart to visit our varieties pages! *Having trouble viewing the chart? Access the PDF version here.

Planting Chart

*Spacing requirements may vary. Due to the wide variety of tools and techniques available to both gardeners and commercial growers, this chart should only be used as a guide.

CROP TYPE

Initial Spacing
for direct seeding
Final Spacing
for DS or TP
Seed Planting Depth Row Spacing Direct Sow or Transplant Soil Temp (°F) for germination Start Transplants
(before setting out)
When to Plant Out

Artichokes

1-2' same 1/4" 5' TP 60-80° 10-12 weeks After last frost
Bean,
Bush, Dry
1-2" same 1-2" 28-36" DS 60-80° n/a After last frost
Bean,
Bush, Snap
2-3" same 1-2" 18-36" DS 60-80° n/a After last frost
Bean,
Pole
1-2" same 1-2" 12" DS 60-80° n/a After last frost

Bean,
Soy

2-3" same 1-2" 18-36" DS 70-90° n/a After last frost

Beet

10 seeds/ft 2-3" 1-2" 12-18" DS 60-85° n/a As soon as soil can be worked
Broccoli 8-12” same 1/4-1/2" 18" DS or TP 65-85° 4-6 weeks After last hard frost

Broccoli,
Sprouting

3 seeds/ft 6-12" 1/2" 18" DS 50-65° n/a After last frost
or in late summer

Brussels Sprouts

18-24” same 1/4-1/2" 30" DS or TP 65-75° 4-6 weeks As soon as soil can be worked
Cabbage,
Chinese/Napa
2-4 seeds/ft 10-16" 1/2" 18" DS or TP 70-95° 4-6 weeks When nights are at least 50°F
Cabbage,
Fresh Market
2-4 seeds/ft 10-18" 1/2" 12-18" DS or TP 55-95° 4-6 weeks After last hard frost

Cabbage,
Storage

2-4 seeds/ft 18-24" 1/2" 18-38" DS or TP 55-95° 4-6 weeks 10 weeks before first frost

Carrot

30 seeds/ft 1-2" 1/4-1/2" 18-24" DS 60-85° n/a As soon as soil can be worked

Cauliflower

2-4" 12-18" 1/4-1/2" 18" DS or TP 55-80° 4-6 weeks After last hard frost

Celery/Celeriac

6-10" same 1/8" 18-24" TP 60-70° 10-12 weeks 2-3 weeks before last frost
Chard,
Bunching
6 seeds/ft 4-8" 1/2" 18-24" DS or TP 65-85° 4-6 weeks After last hard frost

Chard,
Baby

40 seeds/ft
in 2-4" band
same 1/2" 2-4" DS 65-85° n/a After last hard frost

Collards

2" 8-10" 1/4-1/2" 18-30" DS or TP 70-95° 4 weeks As soon as soil can be worked
Corn,
Early season
2-4" 8-10" 1-2" 30-36" DS or TP 60-95° 7-10 days When soil is at least 55°F

Corn,
Mid-Late season

2-4" 8-12" 1-2" 36" DS or TP 60-95° 7-10 days When soil is at least 55°F
Cucumber,
Greenhouse
2-4" 20" 1/2" 5-6' TP 75-90° 3-4 weeks Trellis in greenhouse when at least 55°F
Cucumber,
Pickling
2-4" 8-12" 1/2" 3-6' DS or TP 75-90° 3-4 weeks One week after last frost

Cucumber,
Slicing

2-4" 12-24" 1/2" 5-6' DS or TP 75-90° 3-4 weeks One week after last frost

Eggplant

18-24" 18-24" 1/4" 24-36" TP 75-90° 8-12 weeks When nights are at least 50°F

Fennel

2" 6-8" 1/4-1/2" 18" DS or TP 60-65° 4-5 weeks After last hard frost
Garlic,
Softneck
3-6" same 2" with mulch,
3-4" without
18" DS 55-85° n/a After first frost and before ground freezes

Garlic,
Hardneck

3-6" same 2" with mulch,
3-4" without
18" DS 55-85° n/a After first frost and before ground freezes
Greens,
Baby Leaf/Salad
60 seeds/ft
in 2-4" bands
same 1/8" 3-4" between bands DS 55-85° n/a As soon as soil can be worked
Greens,
Arugula, Full size
10 seeds/ft 4-6" 1/4" 18" DS 65-85° n/a As soon as soil can be worked
Greens,
Asian, Baby
60 seeds/ft
in 2-4" bands
same 1/4" 3-4" between bands DS 70-95° n/a As soon as soil can be worked
Greens,
Beet
40 seeds/ft
in 2-4" bands
same 1-2" 2-4" between bands DS 60-85° n/a As soon as soil can be worked
Greens,
Cress, Garden
1/2” apart in 2-4" bands same 1/4" 2-4" between bands DS 65-85° n/a As soon as soil can be worked
Greens,
Cress, Upland
1" 4" 1/4" 12-18" DS 65-85° n/a After last frost
Greens,
Belgian endive
6 seeds/ft 4-6" 1/8" 18-24" DS 65-85° n/a As soon as soil can be worked
Greens,
Endive, baby
30 seeds/ft in
2-4” bands
same 1/8" 3-4" between bands DS or TP 60-85° 6-8 weeks As soon as soil can be worked
Greens,
Escarole, full size
2" 10-12" 1/8" 12-18" DS or TP 60-85° 6-8 weeks As soon as soil can be worked
Greens,
Mustard
60 seeds/ft
in 2-4" bands
same 1/4" 3-4" between bands DS 65-85° n/a As soon as soil can be worked
Greens,
Purslane
1/2" 4-6" 1/4" 16-20" DS 68-74° n/a After last frost
Greens,
Radicchio
8 seeds/ft 8-12" 1/4" 24" DS or TP 68-85° 4-6 weeks After last frost

Greens,
Radish

60 seeds/ft
in 2-4" bands
same 1/4" 2-3" between bands DS 55-85° n/a As soon as soil can be worked
Herbs,
Basil
4-8" same 1/4" 12-24" DS or TP 70-90° 4-6 weeks After last frost
Herbs,
Chives
4-8" annual,
12-18" perennial
same 1/4-1/2" 18-24" DS or TP 60-70° 10-12 weeks After last hard frost
Herbs,
Parsley
1/4" 12-18" 1/4" 18-24" DS or TP 50-80° 6-8 weeks After last hard frost
Herbs,
Dill
10 seeds/ft 2-4" 1/4" 18-24" DS 50-80° n/a After last hard frost

Herbs,
Cilantro

2" 4" 1/4" 12" DS or TP 50-80° 4-6 weeks After last hard frost
Kale,
Full size
2" 10-18" 1/4-1/2" 18-30" DS or TP 70-95° 4 weeks After last hard frost

Kale,
Baby

60 seeds/ft
in 2-4" bands
same 1/4-1/2" 2" DS 70-95° n/a As soon as soil can be worked

Kohlrabi

1" 4" 1/4-1/2" 12-18" DS or TP 65-85° 4-6 weeks As soon as soil can be worked

Leek

1-2" 6" 1/4" 24" TP 60-80° 10-12 weeks As soon as soil can be worked
Lettuce,
Baby leaf
60 seeds/ft
in 2" bands
same 1/8" 3-4" between bands DS 40-80° n/a After last hard frost

Lettuce,
Full Size

3" 8-12" 1/8" 12-18" DS or TP 40-80° 3-4 weeks After last hard frost

Melon

12-18" 12-18" 1/2" 6' DS or TP 75-95° 4 weeks After last frost

Okra

6-12" 12-18" 1" 3' DS or TP 75-95° 6 weeks After last frost
Onions/Shallots 10 seeds/ft 3-6" 1/8-1/4" 18-30" TP 50-95° 8-12 weeks After last hard frost

Onions,
Bunching/Scallions

50 seeds/ft
in 2-3" bands
same 1/4-1/2" 12-18" DS 50-95° n/a As soon as soil can be worked

Parsnip

20 seeds/ft
in 2" bands
2-3" 1/2" 18-24" DS 50-65° n/a After last frost
Peas,
Dwarf
1 1/2" same 1-2" 12-18" DS 50-75° n/a As soon as soil can be worked

Peas,
Trellising

2 1/2" same 1-2" 2-6' DS 50-75° n/a As soon as soil can be worked

Pepper

same 1/4" 18-36" TP 68-95° 6-8 weeks After last frost
Potatoes,
New/Fingerling
12" same 3-6" 36" DS 50-75° n/a 1-2 weeks before last frost

Potatoes,
Full Size

12" same 3-6" 36" DS 50-75° n/a 1-2 weeks before last frost
Pumpkin,
Bush/Semi-Bush
2-3 seeds/18" 18" 1/2-1" 6' DS or TP 70-90° 3-4 weeks After last frost

Pumpkin,
Vining

2-3 seeds/36" 24-36" 1/2-1" 6' DS or TP 70-90° 3-4 weeks After last frost
Radish,
Winter
4-6" same 1/4-1/2" 12-16" DS 55-85° n/a As soon as soil can be worked

Radish,
Garden

1" same 1/4-1/2" 8-12" DS 55-85° n/a As soon as soil can be worked

Rutabaga

2" 6" 3/4" 18-24 DS 60-95° n/a Spring /early summer
Spinach,
Baby leaf
40 seeds/ft
in 2-4" bands
same 1/8-1/4" 1-2" between bands DS 45-65° n/a As soon as soil can be worked until early fall

Spinach,
Bunching

10 seeds/ft 2" 1/8-1/4" 12-18" DS 45-65° n/a As soon as soil can be worked until early fall

Squash,
Summer

6-12" 12-24" 1/2-1" 5-6' DS or TP 70-90° 3-4 weeks After last frost
Squash,
Winter, Bush
6-12" 18-24" 1/2-1" 6' DS or TP 70-90° 3-4 weeks After last frost

Squash,
Winter, Vining

6-12" 24-36" 1/2-1" 6' DS or TP 70-90° 3-4 weeks After last frost
Tomato,
Determinate
12-18" same 1/4" 4-6' TP 60-85° 6-8 weeks After last frost
Tomato,
Indeterminate
24-36" same 1/4" 4-6' TP 60-85° 6-8 weeks After last frost
Tomato,
Greenhouse
16-24" same 1/4" 6' TP 60-85° 6-8 weeks Trellis in greenhouse when at least 65°F

Tomatillo

12-18" same 1/4" 4-6' TP 60-85° 4-5 weeks After last frost

Turnip

8 seeds/ft" 2-4" 3/4" 12-18" DS 60-95° n/a As soon as soil can be worked

Watermelon

6-12" 12-18" 1/2" 6' DS or TP 75-95° 4 weeks After last frost

Zucchini

6-12" 12-24" 1/2-1" 5-6' DS or TP 70-90° 3-4 weeks After last frost